Sunday, October 21, 2012

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1: Kihei-don

Fig. 1: よね
Fig. 2: 鬼兵衛どん
We've spent a lot of time talking about Tanjirou's house until now. Now we finally learn a little bit about where Yonehachi lives. Last time, Tanjirou had just asked Yonehachi how things were at her house. She replies:

"The state of affairs at [my] house is dreadful (fig. 1). It's that Kihei-don wants (fig. 2) to be called "master" by everyone (fig. 3)."
Notice how in the previous sentence (fig. 5 of this post), the 「す」 in 「よふす」 was written with the common 「寸」. Yet just one sentence later, 「春」 was used instead. I'd really like to know if there's any rhyme or reason behind the selection ― perhaps some undertone implied by them.

Edit: according to Chris in the comments below, there has been no prior evidence of a pattern in kana selection.

Fig. 3: 皆に
Fig. 4: それ
Deciphering the kanji for "Kihei" was quite challenging, since there are so many possibilities. The first one was quite easy to determine to be 「鬼」, but for the latter two, I turned to Tangorin's name search. Note that which kana you search with matter ― only 「きへい」 brought up a result with the correct first character (「鬼」), while only 「きへえ」 brought up results with 「兵衛」 for the second and third kana.

The honorific 「どん」 is a dialectic form of 「どの」, a polite suffix, often used for apprentices. In any case, we can assume that it possesses less authority than "master".

"Even so (fig. 4), the situation was also like that even when his wife was still in good health, so (fig. 5) why has it turned out like that? (fig. 6)"
Fig. 6: どふして
The first thing to note here is (from fig. 5) the word 「在世たつしや」, which means "being alive" and is read as 「ざいせい」 in modern Japanese. The irregular reading comes from the word 「達者」, meaning "in good health" and read as 「たっしゃ」. The meanings are clearly similar, so Tamenaga just interchanged their readings.

Fig. 5: 御内室
Also in fig. 5, note the word 「理由わけ」, which uses a rare reading while having the same meaning as 「わけ」 in modern Japanese: "circumstances"/"situation".

Finally, at the end of fig. 5 is the phrase 「ものを」, which functions in the same way as it did in the previous post (fig. 2).

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1:
The Apprentice Girl (part 5)

Fig. 1: 主「ナニサ
Back to Tanjirou yet again:

"What are you talking about? I'm in no position to hide anything (fig. 1). This [place] is exactly what it looks like, so carefully examine it, if you want (fig. 2)."
Fig. 2: 此姿
The first thing to note is the expression 「ナニサ」, which is defined in Kōjien as "a word used to oppose the words of the other party" (相手の言動に反発して言う語). It also says it's primarily used by women, but Tanjirou hasn't hesitated in the past about using gender-specific words/phrases.

Also keep in mind the unusual kuzushiji choice for 「す」 of 「春」, which we saw once before (fig. 5).

Edit: As explained by Matt in a comment below, 「どこ」 in fig. 1 is an abbreviated version of 「どころ」. Both mean "to be in the position", a pattern that was encountered previously (fig. 2).

I didn't know how to parse the beginning of fig. 2 other than to assume that there was a sentence ending after 「だ」, but that assumption seems a little tenuous since there's no period there.

Edit: The use of 「だ」 is likely analogous to possessive particle 「の」, as suggested by yudantaiteki. Although in modern Japanese, 「だ」 is never used in this situation, it certainly could have been during the Edo period.

Edit 2: also from that same comment by yudantaiteki, 「ものを」 can be interpreted as here as 「だから」 (see meaning 1.2 here).

Fig. 3: 其子の
I also wasn't entirely sure about the meaning of 「つもつて見る」, but 「つもって」 is likely the continuous form of 「積もる」. The overall phrase is probably an older form of the verb 「見積もる」, which means "to estimate", but "to examine" seemed more appropriate in this context.

"Regardless of what that girl said, she didn't know what she was [talking] about (fig. 3)."
Once again, we see the unusual kanji  「咄」, something that surfaced in the past (fig. 4), for 「はなし」. However, unlike that previous occurrence, 「し」 is okurigana and not part of the kanji's reading, another example of irregular okurigana rules during the Edo period.

As for 「知れ」, 「も」 is a bound particle that, when it is preceded by a verb, is preceded by that verb's continuative form (連用形). The verb 「知る」 can be either a yodan verb with ra-conjugation or a shimo-nidan verb; in this case, it must have the shimo-nidan conjugation, since only that one has 「知れ」 for its continuative form.

Edit: as explained by Matt in the comments below, 「知れもしねへ」 is likely a dialectal/archaic form of 「知りもしない」, or "not even know (x)".

Fig. 4: マアそり
"Well, that's that (fig. 4). How are things at your house? (fig. 5)," Tanjirou asked.
Fig. 5: 宅のよふす
The only confusing point here is the ambiguous use of 「宅」 to refer to Yonehachi's house in fig. 5. It's not entirely clear from just this sentence that Tanjirou is referring to her house, but that will become more clear in the next post.

Also interesting is the use of 「の」 as the interrogative particle (notably written with katakana here), something that hasn't been seen before in Umegoyomi.

Finally, something I picked up on here is that there are no periods at the end of a character's lines (i.e., when another person starts speaking immediately afterwards). This suggests that the use of periods in Umegoyomi was not to indicate the end of sentences, but to separate them. There would have been no need to include a period at the end of fig. 5, since Yonehachi's name would have appeared in the top right corner of the next sentence, indicating that she was talking now anyway.

Friday, October 12, 2012

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1:
The Apprentice Girl (part 4)

Fig. 1: 主「ナニ
Now we return to Tanjirou, who doesn't seem too happy about Yonehachi's accusations:

Fig. 2: どうして女房
"Don't be absurd (fig. 1). How could I be in a position to have a wife? (fig. 2) And just which family's daughter is this girl anyway?" (fig. 3), Tanjirou asked. 
Note the use in fig. 1 of the colloquial equivalent of the word 「つまらない」 to mean "absurd" or "foolish" ― one of its secondary meanings.

Fig. 3: そして其子
In fig. 2, Tanjirou utilizes the "compound" word 「女房どころ」. I wasn't exactly sure how to interpret this, but I took the suffix 「どころ」 to mean the compound as a whole referred to the place where the prefixed word (「女房」, or wife) was located. Matt explained this in a comment for the next post ― it means "to be in the position".

Although nothing in fig. 3 directly suggests the word "family", I translated it as such because it was implied through the use of the word 「娘」 ("daughter"/"girl"). As we see here, 「どこ」 can be used for both the physical house and the family associated with it.

Fig. 4: よね「なんだか
Finally, note how Tanjirou softens the ending with 「だらふ」 (「だろう」 in modern Japanese), rather than asking directly with an interrogative particle, such as 「か」. Although I'm no expert on Edo-period social norms, Tanjirou's attempt to sound coy here automatically suggests to me that he's concealing something.

"I think she said her family is in greengrocing (fig. 4). But that's doesn't really matter, does it? (fig. 5) More importantly, you (fig. 6) probably didn't even bother to remember the likes of me now, did you? (fig. 7)"
Fig. 5: それやア
Note the historical kana orthography in fig. 4 that leads to 「八百屋」's furigana to be written as 「やをや」, rather than 「やおや」. We've seen 「お」 be replaced by 「ほ」 before, but I don't think 「を」 instead of 「お」 has been encountered. There's a parallel to the modern use of 「は」 as a particle even though it's pronounced as 「わ」 in that the modern particle 「を」 is pronounced as 「お」 ― both are cases of historical kana orthography not being entirely eliminated in modern Japanese.

Fig. 6: おまはんマア
We see Yonehachi's histrionics begin with fig. 7, and it was here that I ran into a little trouble with the translation.

But first a few notes: the frequent use of 「マア」 here implied a certain nonchalance (in this case, on Yonehachi's part) regarding the entire situation.

Also, the word 「なんざア」 essentially means the same thing as 「など」, which I interpreted to mean "the likes of" here. As explained here, 「なんざあ」 is a sound-shifted word that can be broken down into 「なんぞ」+「は」.

I couldn't figure out what kanji corresponded to 「くん」 in fig. 7 or what its meaning was. It seemed to me the top radical might be 「口」 or 「日」, while the bottom one might be 「六」, but I couldn't find any matching kanji. However, the overall meaning of the sentence was nevertheless relatively easy to decipher, given the context.

Edit: Using yudantaiteki's suggestion that the kanji before 「なさる」 might be 「呉」, I searched for it online and came up with a Google Books result, which appears to contain an unrelated example that confirms that the kanji is indeed 「呉」.

Fig. 7: 今じや
Fig. 8: そして
「なさるまい」, as explained here, is the honorific verb 「為さる」 ("to do") in the predicative form (終止形) combined with 「まい」, which is an auxiliary verb that both negates the preceding verb and makes it a "guess" (i.e., it is uncertain).

At first, the final character in fig. 7 might appear to be the kanji 「子」, and since the attributive form (連体形) of the verb 「まい」 is also 「まい」, it would make grammatical sense as well. However, it obviously doesn't fit the context, and it turns out it's actually a kuzushiji for 「ね」.

"And it's OK (fig. 8) even if you don't try to cover up what I heard in the rumors about you having a wife, isn't it?", Yonehachi asked (fig. 9).
The only real confusion here was which kanji were used for 「かみさん」. Although the meaning was quite clear, I wasn't sure about the first kanji and had no idea about the second. The first looks a lot like 「円」, but not only does it have no relation to 「かみ」 in terms of the meaning or reading, it's a simplified kanji (新字体); the kanji in use when Umegoyomi was written would have been 「圓」. This makes it unlikely that it would have been used here (though it is certainly still possible, as this copy of Umegoyomi was written in a cursive script, which frequently used simplifications that were then later made standard with the post-WW2 orthographic reforms).

Edit 2: from a comment below, it's pretty clear that the first kanji is 「内」. First of all, this is reminiscent of the use of that kanji to write 「かみさん」 as 「内室」 previously (see fig. 7), and makes sense in terms of meaning, as before. Second, the kuzushiji form of the kanji matches the typewritten one quite closely. Finally, as with 「内室」, 「内君(うちぎみ)」 is a compound word with its own reading/meaning ― in this case, it's a polite word for another person's wife.

Edit: also with yudantaiteki's help, it looks like the kanji after 「内」 is 「君」. Now this doesn't make sense based on the readings, but it fits in terms of function, since 「くん」 is used for a purpose similar to 「さん」. The bottom of the calligraphed kanji might not look correct, but after finding examples such as the one in fig. 10, I was convinced.

Fig. 9: いゝじ
Fig. 10: calligraphic
 form of「君」
Note that the verb 「かくさづ」, spelled 「かくさず」 in modern kana orthography, is the verb 「隠す」 ("to cover up"/"to conceal") in the imperfective form (未然形), 「かくさ」, followed by the negative auxiliary verb 「ず」.

In fig. 9, we see the refrain 「いゝじやアありませんか」 repeated, with Yonehachi once again expressing her supposed disinterest in the entire issue of Tanjirou having a wife (though that's obviously not actually the case). Note that the use of 「ヱ」 at the end of the sentence is phonetically identical to the previously encountered (see fig. 4) dialectical pattern 「かへ」, which is equivalent to 「かい」 in modern kana orthography.

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1:
The Apprentice Girl (part 3)

Fig. 1: 十五日を
Fig. 2: 日頃の
"Well, looking forward to the 15th of the month, I left my house and came here (fig. 1). Due to my usual faith (fig. 2) and the grace of Myoken (fig. 4)I had the good fortune to come to know where your house was (fig. 3)."
The "15th of the month" refers to the current day (i.e., "today"), from the context. As seen before, if a character doesn't have furigana and it's not a kana, then it's probably a number kanji, or one of the common suffixes that follow them.

I wasn't entirely sure at first about why Arima came up again here, but nothing else made particular sense in this context.

Edit: as suggested by undrentide on the Japan Reference Forums, 「でありまさアな」 is likely a form of 「であります」, which is just 「です」. I can't quite figure out the verb conjugation though, so I could use suggestions there.

Edit 2: a second post by Toritoribe cleared this up. As explained here,「まさあ」 is a sound-shifted form of 「ますわ」, which is just an emphasized form of 「ます」. Therefore, 「でありまさア」 is nothing more than an emphasized form of 「であります」.

Fig. 3: 風と
I interpreted the use of the kanji 「風」 ("wind") as meaning "good fortune" (as in, "the winds of good fortune"), building on the previous phrase 「日頃の念力」 ("usual faith"). It is read here using one of its on'yomi, 「ふ」.

Note how this particular "sentence" ends in 「だと」, an informal "reversal" (where the name, "Arima" in this case, comes at the beginning of the quoted clause) also observed in modern Japanese.

Fig. 4: 妙見さま
I wasn't entirely sure about either the kanji or furigana for 「空」, but it's what turned up from my searches. 「あか」 isn't a listed reading for 「空」, but 「あく」 and 「あき」 are. I'm guessing the implied meaning behind "empty" is that, as previously mentioned, the house is "lacking in various aspects". For example, it could refer to the absence of Tanjirou's supposed wife, his poverty-stricken state, or his physical infirmity.

Edit: Chris has suggested in the comments below that the furigana for 「空」 might be 「あう」, which would give the compound 「空家」 an overall pronunciation (rendered in modern kana orthography) of 「おうか」.

I'm still not sure how the grammar would work out in that case ― it would suggest that 「空家」 is not exactly a compound, but a verb without okurigana (which we've seen numerous examples of in Umegoyomi) followed by a noun. However, I'm not sure about how the verb conjugation would work out in this case. Also, the handwritten form of 「う」 usually has a larger first stroke, as observed in fig. 6, below.

Edit: Matt's comment below seems to have cleared up the issue. The first kanji is 「在」, and not 「空」. The confusing part about this is that the bottom left stroke is missing, but that's something I should've picked up on, since it was seen before, in fig. 3 of this post.
"Although I'm happy to see you, I'm not entirely cheerful either (fig. 5) ― [because of] the rumor about you having a wife. Has she gone somewhere today? (fig. 6)"
Fig. 5: 嬉しいに付て
There are two particles of interest in fig. 5. The first is 「に」, which is conjunctive in function in this case and indicates concession ("although"). It shows up in modern Japanese as 「のに」.

Fig. 6: おかみさん
The second particle of interest is 「は」, which is of course the informal modern emphatic particle, and can be seen as a less strong version of 「よ」. Once again, we observe colloquial and informal speech creeping into the dialogue in Umegoyomi. In accordance with traditional kana orthography, the particle is written using the kana 「は」, and not 「わ」, as in modern Japanese. This is something to watch out for, as it can easily lead to confusion with the topic particle, written as 「は」 in both modern and classical Japanese.

In fig. 6, we see the term 「どこぞ」, which is just a vaguer form of 「どこか」 ("somewhere"). It might be interpreted as an attempt on Yonehachi's part to appear not too concerned about Tanjirou's wife to him.

The kanji used for 「おいで」 are normally read as 「たしゅつ」, and mean "going out", so the meaning fits. We saw this once before with 「おいで」, but that time the kanji were 「在宅」 (meaning "being in" or "being at home"). Since 「おいで」 has a variety of meanings, including "coming", "going", and "being", it is very likely Tamenaga is using kanji compounds here with his desired meaning (and ignoring their readings) to clarify the meaning of 「おいで」 for benefit of the reader while preserving the ambiguous nature of the term within the context of the novel.

The final 「かへ」 is equivalent to the modern day informal interrogative sentence ending 「かい」, as previously encountered (see fig. 4).