Saturday, October 19, 2013

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1: Into Hiding

Fig. 1: 相
Fig. 2: 

"While [we were] in the middle of discussing [this], young government officials arrived at Kyūhachi’s house from [Lord Hatakeyama’s] mansion (fig. 1)."

The word 「さい中」 is just 「最中」 written in kana for the first character only. This is somewhat reminiscent of mazegaki, although that term is typically used to refer to words written in a mix of kanji and kana as a result of the post-WW2 orthographic reforms.

I couldn't figure out the meaning of the kanji 「㐬」, so I just ignored it in the translation above. Perhaps that's not the right kanji, but the reading does match.

Edit: according to Matt's suggestion in the comments, I've changed 「役人㐬」 to 「役人衆」. He suggested that the reading was 「わかしゅ」, which meant "young man" in the Edo period. However, the difference in the kanji and the furigana for the first two kanji clearly being 「やくにん」 (which is a valid reading for 「役人」) by itself led me to changing the furigana to 「やくにんしゅ」. Therefore, I included the meanings of both readings (「やくにん」 and 「わかしゅ」) in the translation, as "young government officials."

The first component of the verb 「ござられて」 is 「ござら」, or the verb 「ござる」 in the imperfective form (未然形). Next is 「れ」, or the auxiliary verb 「る」 (which makes the preceding verb honorific) in the continuative form (連用形). This is presumably added because the men coming are officials from the government. Last is the continuative particle, 「て」.

Fig. 4: 松
"Because the Lord was departing for his [home] province (fig. 2), he had not noticed [the matter] and let it be, but because the Natsui household had been broken up [and sold off], he wouldn't sway for us [in terms of] the price of the tea caddy (fig. 3)."

In fig. 3, the verb 「心づかず」 can be parsed as the verb 「心づく」 in the imperfective form followed by the negative auxiliary verb 「ず」.

Fig. 3: 夏
I wasn't entirely sure about how to break down 「ゆるかせ」, but I'm guessing it's the classical Japanese verb 「許る」 ("to permit") followed by the verb 「仮す」, which means "to grant" or "to forgive."

Edit: according to Matt's comments below, I've changed「ゆるかす」 to 「ゆるがす」, meaning "to sway," which I took to refer to his firmness on receiving repayment for the tea caddy.

The following pattern 「ならね」 is just 「ならない」 with a slightly different pronunciation.

I was also a little confused about the meaning, but I think the issue at hand is that since the Natsui household had already been liquidated, there was no way for Tanjirou (or anyone else from the household, for that matter) to pay Lord Hatakeyama the price of the tea caddy. In such a situation, the debt could have simply been forgiven, but the Lord chose not to in this case.
Fig. 5:

"He commanded [the government officials] to get (fig. 5) Matsubei, as well as the husband (fig. 4), Tanjirou, to accompany [them back]. This was a big problem (fig. 5)."
I wasn't sure about what the function of 「當」 in 「當主人」 was, so I just ignored it in my translation above.

In fig. 6, the term 「同道」 ("going with" or "accompanying") is used. The second kanji looked quite different from the print form, so I tracked down this entry in a kuzushiji dictionary to confirm its identity.

Continuing the interpretation from above, the government officials are taking Matsubei and Tanjirou into custody because they cannot pay off their debt from the tea caddy.

Fig. 6: それ
Fig. 7:
"After that, Kyūhachi made arrangements (fig. 6). I would, for a while, hide myself and my welfare from society (fig. 7)."

Note the phrase 「世をしのぶ」 in fig. 7. 「世を忍ぶ」 means "to hide [oneself] from the view of society."

Later is the phrase 「身のうへ」, or 「身の上」, which means "one's welfare."

Fig. 8:
Fig. 9:


“Due to Matsubei being missing, the hardships have gradually [built up] for Kyūhachi (fig. 8), and because of all this, frustrating difficulties have come to me too, haven’t they? (fig. 9)

Note the verb 「しれす」. 「しれ」 is the shimo-nidan (下二段) conjugation of the verb 「知る」 in the imperfective form. The meaning is the same as 「かかわる」's in modern Japanese: "to have to do with."

Saturday, October 12, 2013

Konjaku Monogatarishū Vol. 2, Tale 1: Śuddhodana's Death #1 (part 9)

Fig. 2:
And now the final part of this tale:
Fig. 1: 霊鷲山ニ
When [they] were about to arrive at at Vulture Peak (fig. 1), arhat came [to Śuddhodana]. [They] picked up and gathered chinaberry wood drifting along the side of the sea (fig. 2), and burned the Great King's body (fig. 3).
The only thing that tripped me up in fig. 1 was the verb 「入ム」. I'm guessing the meaning is the same as 「入る」, but I couldn't find any dictionary entries to prove this. So I just assumed that was the meaning, and got the reading from an unrelated entry, for 「見に入む」, where 「入」 was read as 「し」.

Edit: as Chris has mentioned in the comments, 「むとす」 is a phrase which has the same meaning as 「しようとする」 in modern Japanese (see entry 2 here). In this case, the interpretation "to be about to do X" is the more likely one. 「為る」 is 「す」 in the attributive form (連体形).

Fig. 3: 大
We previously encountered (fig. 1) the term 「阿羅漢果」, meaning "arhathood." Here we see the truncated term 「阿羅漢」, which means just "arhat."

In fig. 2, we see the verb 「寄タル」. This can be parsed as the verb 「寄す」 (with the okurigana folded into the furigana) in the realis form (已然形) followed by the auxiliary verb 「たり」 (indicating resultativeness) in the attributive form (連体形).

The emptiness reverberated (fig. 4).
Fig. 4: 空ヲ
The first kanji we see here, 「空」, has a Buddhism-specific interpretation. It refers to śūnyatā, which has many differing meanings related to emptiness. I don't know much about the topic, so I'm not sure of the exact religious significance of the sentence in fig. 4.
Fig. 5: 其ノ

At that moment, the Buddha preached the writings on transience (fig. 5).
The first thing to note here is the use of the word 「無常」 with an alternate kanji, 「无」.

The reading for the kanji 「說」 was just a guess, based on the verb 「説く」.

Edit: as Chris has suggested, the reading for the kanji 「說」 is most likely 「とき」, another case where the okurigana from 「説く」 has been folded into the furigana.

As with fig. 4, I'm not too sure of the religious significance of fig. 5.

When [the body] had finished burning, the remaining bones were picked up and gathered (fig. 6), then placed in a golden box. A stūpa was constructed [there], or so the story is told (fig. 7).
First of all, note the verb 「畢る」, in fig. 6. Once again, the okurigana have been folded into furigana. It is followed by the phrase 「奉リツレバ」 (the dakuten on 「バ」 are omitted in the original manuscript). This can be broken down as the verb 「奉る」 in the continuative form (連用形), followed by 「ツレ」, which is the realis form of the auxiliary verb 「つ」, which makes the preceding verb perfective in this case. Finally, we have the conjunctive particle (接続助詞) 「バ」, which provides a temporal logical connection ("when") here.
Fig. 6: 焼キ

Fig. 7: 金
The term 「舎利」 also has a Buddhism-specific meaning, referring to the bones remaining after a body is cremated.

Moving on to fig. 7, there is the kanji 「塔」, which also takes on a Buddhism-specific meaning, this time stūpa, which is a type of burial mound that often contains the ashes of Buddhist monks. This kanji used by itself is an abbreviation of the terms 「卒塔婆」 and 「塔婆」.

A third instance of the okurigana being folded into the furigana is seen with 「奉ケリ」. The ending construct 「ケリトナム語リ傳ヘタルトヤ」 seems to be common to all stories in Konjaku, and likely in other works of this genre/time. 「ケリ」 indicates hearsay, while 「ナム」 emphasizes the preceding content. I translated it as "or so the story is told," but there are probably a lot of alternate translations, both more and less direct (in terms of meanings).

Friday, September 13, 2013

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1: The Tea Caddy Zangetsu

Returning after a (long) break:
Fig. 1: 二番


"When the second clerk, a person named Kyūhachi, kindly arrived at Lord Hatakeyama['s residence] as my representative (fig. 1), he [Lord Hatakeyama] immediately agreed to give me the money, but the other day he had commanded Matsubei (fig. 2) to take a tea caddy, Zangetsu, to sell off, and when he asked [about it] at this time, [he learned] it had been sold to the Kajiwara family for 1500 ryou (fig. 3)."
Fig. 2:

First of all, note the irregular kanji for 「親切」 (meaning "kindness"). The first character written with the kanji 「信」 instead. Since I can't decipher any semantic connection between the two kanji ("faith" for 「信」 and "parent" for 「親」), it appears that this is purely due their homophonicity (both can be read as 「しん」).

Next, note the use of the particle 「が」 (after 「おれ」) to indicate possession, analogous to modern Japanese's 「の」.

The sequence 「行たれば」 can be broken down as the verb 「たる」 (an irregular writing of the verb 「いたる」) in the realis form (已然形), followed by the auxiliary verb 「ば」, which here takes on the temporal meaning of "when".

Moving on to fig. 2, I had difficulty parsing 「下げつゝハそ」. I think that 「下げ」 is derived from the classical verb 「下ぐ」. However, after searching through the various entries listed on that page, I couldn't find one that really fit this sentence. My best guess, based on the context, is that it takes on the opposite meaning of 「上げる」 - that is, "give (to someone below you)", similar to 「遣る」 in modern Japanese.

Fig. 3:
I had no idea how to parse 「つつハそ」. 「つつ」 in classical Japanese takes on a meaning similar to 「何度も」 in the modern language - it indicates repetition. But that by itself wasn't too helpful.

Edit: as Chris has suggested in the comments, 「つつハそが」 might be interpreted as 「つつ(こと)ハそ(れ)が」, where the kana in parentheses are implied. The meaning/translation would basically stay the same.

Finally, the verb 「おふせつけられた」 has the same meaning as the MJ おおせつける」, or 「仰せ付ける」 - “to command/request/appoint”. The difference is in the kana. The MJ noun 「仰せ」 comes from the 古文 verb 「おふす」, or 「仰す」, also meaning “to command/appoint.”

In fig. 3, we see the word 「残月」, which I had difficulty figuring out the meaning of. It appears to be just the name of the tea caddy (「而茶入」), but it would be great to get some clarification on this matter. One minor detail about the furigana - note how the dakuten are missing for the 「ざ」, but not for the 「げ」.
Fig. 4:

「梶原」, on the other hand, is clearly a family name, which is particularly clarified by the use of the kanji 「家」 right after it. It would be read as 「かじわら」.

「而拂もの」 is similar to the MJ 「払い物」, meaning "discarded article".

「此ほど」, read as 「このほど」, means "at this time".

The final point to note in fig. 3 is the irregular use of the kanji 「納」 for the verb 「収まる」. It is in the continuative form (連用形) and followed by 「し」, which is the auxiliary verb 「き」 (indicating personal past) in the attributive form (連体形). The attributive form is necessary here because it is followed by the particle 「と」.

"Kyūhachi was told that, deducting the 500 ryou to give to Natsui Tanjirou, the remaining 1000 ryou must be immediately repaid, and so [Kyūhachi] returned in shock (fig. 4)."
In fig. 4, I wasn't sure about the kanji in 「至たる」, so if that's wrong, let me know.

Edit: Chris has suggested below that it might be 「老たる」, but I can't find a matching dictionary entry.

The compound verb 「さし引遺り」 can be broken down as 差し引く」(“to deduct”) + 「残る」.

「立かへり」 of course comes from the verb 「立ち返る」 ("to come back").

Sunday, April 14, 2013

Konjaku Monogatarishū Vol. 2, Tale 1: Śuddhodana's Death #1 (part 8)

Fig. 1: 然レハ

We continue the description of Śuddhodana's funeral from last time:
So many living things all suddenly [began] to hop up and down and make a racket  (fig. 1).
Fig. 2: 水ノ
The first word, 「然レバ」, can be read in modern Japanese as either 「しかれば」 or 「されば」, but a classical Japanese dictionary only lists the reading 「されば」, which is why I selected it.

Also note the use of the word 「踊リ」. The modern meaning of the verb 「踊る」 refers to dancing. But the original meaning was equivalent to the modern Japanese word 「飛び跳ねる」: to jump or hop up and down.
They were like boats on the water being struck by waves (fig. 2).
Note the irregular use of the kanji 「値」 for the verb 「与える」. It seems like it was selected purely for its phonetic value here, as its meaning ("price"/"cost"/"value") is not used at all here.

Fig. 3: 其ノ

I'm not sure how to grammatically parse the phrase 「値ヘル」. Since 「ガ如シ」 has to be preceded by a verb in the attributive form (連体形), 「ル」 is likely an auxiliary verb in that form. It is most likely the perfective verb 「り」, which itself is preceded by the perfective/realis form (已然形) of yodan verbs. This makes sense, since the yodan verb 「値フ」 would be 「値ヘ」 in the perfective form. However, I couldn't find an entry 「値フ」 in any dictionaries, so I'm not entirely sure.

Edit: Chris has suggested that 「値ヘル」 is actually a contraction of 「ひ」+「ある」.  However, it's still not clear exactly what the meaning of this is.
At that time, the Four Heavenly Kings asked the Buddha [for permission to] shoulder the coffin (fig. 3)
The Four Heavenly Kings (caturmahārāja, or चतुर्महाराज, in Sanskrit) mentioned here "are the protectors of the world and fighters of evil."

Fig. 4: 佛

The word 「荷ヒ」 is related to the modern Japanese word 「荷なう」, and appears to have the same meaning: "to carry on [one's] shoulders".
The Buddha permitted this, and had them shoulder [the coffin] (fig. 4).
Fig. 5: 佛ハ

The construct 「荷ハシメ給フ」 can be broken down into the previously encountered verb 「荷フ」 in the imperfective form (未然形), followed by the causative auxiliary verb 「しむ」 in the continuative form (連用形), followed by the honorific auxiliary verb 「給フ」, in the predicative form (終止形).
The Buddha, holding an incense burner, walked in front of the Great King (fig. 5).
Fig. 6: 其
By "in front", I'm guessing it means "in the front of the procession", one with the Buddha in front and the Four Heavenly Kings following him, shouldering the coffin.
The graveyard was on top of Vulture Peak (fig. 6).
Note that the reading used for 「墓所」 is not a modern one (which would be either 「はかしょ」 or 「ぼしょ」). Rather, it's the classical reading 「むしょ」.

Edit: in the comments, Chris has suggested that 「墓所」 could also be read using kun'yomi, as 「はかどころ」.

Vulture Peak, which we encountered in a previous post, comes up again in fig. 6.

Finally, we once again encounter the archaic copula 「也」. It has appeared before, in a previous Konjaku post (see fig. 2).

Sunday, April 7, 2013

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1: The Yōshi (part 3)

Fig. 1: それから宅へ
Fig. 2: 音信


Things have been very busy over the last month, but I finally got a chance to write another post. Also, it's gotten to the point now that most of the time for creating a post is spent constructing the annotated images, such that my translations sit in Google Docs for a while before I get around to actually putting up the corresponding post. Hopefully I can come up with an easier/faster solution for annotation at some point - it would certainly allow me to post much more often.

Today we continue to learn about Tanjirou's misfortunes:
"From then on, [I] didn’t even go to and from the house (fig. 1). The break in contact was entirely because of my incompetence (fig. 2)."
Fig. 3: また

 The only thing to note in fig. 1 is the pattern 「ならず」. It can likely be parsed as 「なら」, the imperfective form (未然形) of 「なる」, followed by the negative auxiliary verb 「ず」. As explained in this dictionary entry, the meaning is equivalent to the modern Japanese 「でない」 or 「ではない」.

In fig. 2, we see the phrase 「音信不通」, meaning "break in contact" or "having no communication with". Note that 「みんな」 here actually means "everything" (paraphrased as "entirely" in the translation above), rather than "everyone". That particular meaning is listed in Tangorin as a secondary entry.

Fig. 4: まだ後日
We also see the word 「ふつゝか」, which means, among other things, "inexperienced" or "incompetent". Finally, 「ゆゑ」, equivalent to 「ゆえ」 in modern kana or 「故」 in kanji, means "reason"/"cause".
"And on top of that, the assets that didn’t come from [my] adoption were dispersed (fig. 3). Later, saying 'I have this,' (fig. 4) the clerk Matsubei [produced a bond] for 500 ryō he had lent to Hatakeyama-sama (fig. 5)[He said that] he would give this to me in return [for giving him]  (fig. 6) 70 of the remaining 100 ryō of [the funds from the adoption that were] dispersed (fig. 7)He said he would give it to the others later, (fig. 8) [but] saying he was going to [the capital] Kyoto [lit. ascending], he disappeared (fig. 9)."
Near the end of fig. 3, we see the word 「ふんさん」.  This is most likely the word 「ぶんさん」(「分散」 in kanji) with the dakuten missing. It means "scatter" or "disperse".

In fig. 8, we see the verb 「登る」, which has a literal meaning of "to ascend", but can also refer to the act of going to the capital. Remember that Umegoyomi is set during the late Edo period, when Kyoto was still the official capital of Japan. As the novel itself is set in Edo, we can assume that Matsubei has absconded to Kyoto. This claim is strengthened by the fact that 「登る」 is preceded by the place name 「上方」, which referred to the "Kansai region (esp. during Edo period)".

The rest is fairly self-explanatory, but one word to note is 「其身」(in fig. 9), which literally means "body". In this context, I used the pronoun "he" instead in the translation.

Fig. 9: 其身


Fig. 8: 後は他の
Fig. 7: 分散
Fig. 6: この証
Fig. 5: 言て番


Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Konjaku Monogatarishū Vol. 2, Tale 1: Śuddhodana's Death #1 (part 7)

Fig. 1: 失
Fig. 2: 御
Last time, Śuddhodana's life finally came to an end. But the story doesn't end there:
As [Śuddhodana] vanished, the Buddha and Nanda were both at his bedside (fig. 1), while Ānanda and Rāhula were both at his feet (fig. 2).
Note the term 「枕上」 — it means "a person's bedside", in this case Śuddhodana's. As for 「候ひ」, that is the continuative form (連用形) of the verb 「候ふ」, which is an archaic verb for "to be".

I wasn't entirely sure about the furigana for the kanji in 「在シマス」, but based on dictionary entries like 「ましま」, I guessed that the text had an alternate writing where 「しま」 had been moved from the furigana into the okurigana.

Edit: as explained by Matt in the comments below, 「御跡」 means "feet", rather than the literal meaning of "remains".

Fig. 4: 佛


Fig. 3: カクテ
Thus, during the funeral (fig. 3), in order to warn people in the far future about failing to repay their debts of gratitude to their parents for their upbringings, the Buddha (fig. 4) went to shoulder his father’s coffin, when (fig. 5) a major earthquake hit, and the world was not calm (fig. 6).
 The first point of confusion in fig. 4 is the meaning of the phrase 「末世の衆生」. According to the explanation on this page, it refers to "people [the masses] in the distant future", which makes sense in this context.

Fig. 5: 父ノ
Next, we see the kanji 「恩」 by itself. It has a couple of meanings, including "favor", "obligation", and "debt of gratitude". I think either of the last 2 would apply here.

There is also the verb 「報ふ」, which means "to repay [a debt]". Note how it is in the Sinitic "negative first" grammatical format in the original text. I have changed it to the Japanese equivalent in the quoted text above.

「報ふ」 is in the imperfective form here (未然形), followed by the negative auxiliary verb 「ず」, which is also in the imperfective form and takes on the form 「ざら」. Finally,  we see the auxiliary verb 「む」 in the attributive form (連体形), which has several possible meanings. I think it takes on the "hypothetical" meaning here, since it refers to something that happens in the distant future.

That same verb is encountered at the end of 「給ハム」, but there takes on the meaning of intention ("in order to"). It's also seen with this meaning in fig. 5: 「荷ハム」.

Fig. 6: 

The meaning of 「御棺」 is explained here — it's a polite way of referring to the coffin that Śuddhodana was placed in.

The kanji 「為」 is used in fig. 5 for a different purpose than it is at the end of fig. 4. Here, it represents the verb 「」, which has the same meaning as the modern verb 「する」.

At the end of fig. 6, there is another Sinitic negative pattern — 「不安ス」. The okurigana 「ス」 is missing dakuten. This is very interesting, as it must be the auxiliary negative verb 「ず」, even though there is also a 「不」 in the original text.

Sunday, February 10, 2013

Shunshoku Umegoyomi Vol. 1: The Yōshi (part 2)

Fig. 1: 主「さ

Fig. 2: やつ

Last time, we found out about Tanjirou's stint as a yōshi. Now we get into the details of what actually happened to him:
Master [Tanjirou]: "Well...when I think about it now (fig. 1), after all, Kihei was conspiring with the previous head clerk, Matsubei (fig. 2), and as soon as the door was closed, being fully aware of [the state of] the household assets, [he] immediately [made] me a yōshi (fig. 3)."
In fig. 1, we see the phrase 「今さら」, which is of course the same as 「今更」. In this case, it specifically has the first definition listed on Tangorin: "now", including the parenthetical "after such a long time".

At the beginning of fig. 2 is 「やつはり」. This is equivalent to 「やっぱり」. There's just a large 「つ」 and a 「は」 without a handakuten. The meaning stays the same.

Fig. 3: 直に

Some online sources have suggested that Kihei is written here as 「鬼兵へ」, rather than 「鬼兵」. However, I don't see that being true (at least with this manuscript), since then the bottom of 「兵」 would be missing from the script.

Edit: as Chris has suggested below, his kuzushiji dictionary suggested that this is actually 「兵へ」. The bottom radical in 「兵」 is essentially omitted. This applies both for Kihei (鬼兵へ) and Matsubei (松兵へ), in fig. 2 and 6.

Fig. 4: そ
Also note the use of the phrase 「なれ合」  this is equivalent to 「馴れ合い」, which can mean "conspiracy".
"[I] knew very little [about all] that. When I entered the family (fig. 4), I also married the mountain (fig. 5) of debt (fig. 4), and so (fig. 5), for that reason, I also had Kihei (fig. 6) stamp a 100 ryō (fig. 7) coin and gave it to my adoptive family, but it turned out to be a waste [of money] (fig. 8)."
In fig. 4, we see the kanji 「露」. Although the common meaning is "dew", it can also mean "a small quantity" (「わずかなこと」).

Fig. 5: 山
We also see the pattern 「しらき」. I wasn't entirely sure about having 「き」 at the end, but nothing else made sense grammatically. I couldn't figure out which kanji this kana would be derived from, though. If it is actually 「き」, in grammatical terms it would be the predicative form (終止形) of 「き」, an auxiliary verb that indicates that the preceding verb is in the personal past. Since the preceding verb has to be in the continuative form (連用形), I'm not sure why it's 「し」 (the original verb presumably being 「知る」), but perhaps it's using a non-yodan conjugation (I don't have my dictionary with me, so I can't check).

Edit: as Chris explains below, the kana after 「しら」 is actually 「す」, derived from the kanji  「須」. This is a little confusing because the dakuten have been omitted here. The correct way to read this is 「しらず」, which is the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb 「知る」 followed by the negative auxiliary verb 「ず」, in its predicative form (終止形).

Fig. 6: 思つ

There is also an irregular form of 「入る」 — 「這入る」. Both are pronounced 「はいる」.

At the end of fig. 4 is the word 「借金しゃっきん」, which is read as 「しゃくきん」 here instead, but retains its meaning.

In fig. 5, we see the phrase 「縁つく」, which is equivalent to 「縁づく」, also written as 「縁付く」 — "to marry".

Fig. 7: 判を
In fig. 7, we see the term 「おさせた」, which is the past tense and causative form of 「押す」. This word appears to have been formed according to modern Japanese grammar. Once again, it may be that the author switches back and forth when going from narration (classical) to dialogue (modern). This particular instance occurs while Tanjirou is speaking, so the modern form was used.

The kanji 「両」 refers to a premodern Japanese currency, the ryō. As mentioned in that article, 100 ryō would have been a very significant amount of money, particularly for someone as poor as Tanjirou (perhaps he became poor as a result of wasting all this money).

Fig. 8: 金も
The phrase 「いれ仏事」, also written as 「仏事ぶつじ」, refers to pointlessly throwing money at something (「むだな出費」). It's very interesting how dakuten are included for the furigana 「ぶつ」, but excluded for 「事」, which has its furigana written as 「し」, rather than 「じ」.

Thursday, January 17, 2013

Konjaku Monogatarishū Vol. 2, Tale 1: Śuddhodana's Death #1 (part 6)

Fig. 1: 大
We continue with the next segment of Śuddhodana's story:
The Great King took the Buddha's hand and pulled it close to his own chest, at which point (fig. 1) he [Śuddhodana] ended up achieving arhathood (fig. 2).
Fig. 2: 阿
The first thing to note is of course the term arhat (Sanskrit: अर्हत). It essentially refers to someone who has achieved nirvana. Note that, just as with anāgāmi (see fig. 5), the final kanji 「果」 represents the suffix -hood. Therefore, the Japanese term for arhat would be just 「阿羅漢」. This is a purely phonetic representation, as the first two kanji have been encountered before in unrelated contexts, such as the names Ānanda (阿難) and Rāhula (羅睺羅).

Another interesting observation for fig. 1 is how the kana 「セ」 actually looks much more like its hiragana equivalent 「せ」. This appears to be one of the few cases in this text where a kana favored the modern hiragana style over the katakana version.

Fig. 3: 其ノ

The final point of interest is the verb ending at the end of fig. 2. Note that we have the verb 「」 ("to achieve") in its continuative form (連用形), which is 「」. Next is the honorific verb 「給フ」, also in the continuative form. Finally is the auxiliary verb 「ヌ」, which is in the predicative form (終止形) and has the perfective (完了) function. The verb not only indicates the completion of an event/action, it also signifies that it occurred naturally, which is where the "ended up" part of the translation comes from. This is comparable to the modern Japanese 「なってしまった」.
After that, some time passed, and the Great King's life came to an end (fig. 3).
Fig. 4: 其
I treated 「其ノ後」 as a compound meaning "after that". Other than for that, the most confusing part of fig. 3 was the compound 「絶畢」, which I couldn't find a dictionary entry for. The meaning was pretty clear (and redundant), as the first kanji means "discontinue", while the second means "finish". However, I wasn't sure about the reading. What I've selected above, 「ぜつひつ」, is just based on the on'yomi of the two kanji. However, it might be read as 「ぜっぴつ」, which is the modern reading for 「絶筆」, which has the same first kanji and a similar second kanji (it also has the on'yomi reading 「ひつ」).

Edit: as Chris has suggested in the comments below, it is more likely that 「絶畢」 is read as 「たへはて」, since supplementary verbs such as 「給ふ」 must be preceded by a verb, rather than a nominal compound. Verbs are usually written using kun'yomi, making 「ぜつひつ」 or 「ぜっぴつ」 unlikely readings.
Fig. 5: 皆
At that time, inside the castle, the people, from top to bottom (fig. 4), everyone wept and grieved without limit (fig. 5).
There's not too much to say here. We see an alternate kanji for the verb for "to weep" (泣く). That verb is in the continuative form, followed by the verb 「悲む」 in the attributive form (also 「悲む」), as it is immediately followed by a noun (事).

The same pattern with 「无限シ」 that we've seen many times before is repeated here.
Fig. 6: 其ノ
Those sounds reverberated through the castle (fig. 6).
The only thing of interest in fig. 6 is the verb ending. It is the verb 「響ク」 in the imperfective form (未然形) followed by the causative (使役) auxiliary verb 「す」 in the predicative form. It indicates the imposition of a deliberate action by someone on something/someone (in this case, that would be the sounds of the weeping causing reverberation through the castle). The word 「響かす」 exists as a verb by itself in modern Japanese, with the meaning of "to make something resound".
After the "evil" [passed], a coffin was immediately made using the seven treasures (fig. 7). The Great King's body was coated with scented hot water [i.e., it was bathed], and brocaded clothing was put on him. Then he was placed in the coffin (fig. 8).
Fig. 7: 其ノ惡
Fig. 8: 大王ノ
The first thing to note in fig. 7 is the use of the word 「悪」. I wasn't sure what the implications of it were here. Although there weren't quotation marks in the original text, they were in the transcription, so I kept them, both in my transcription and in my translation. As for the reading, it could be 「わる」 as well; I wasn't sure.

Edit: as Chris has suggested in the comments, it appears that the kanji in the original manuscript for 「惡」 is an itaiji (variant kanji) that is actually the 「西」 radical on top instead (and the 「心」 radical still on bottom). It's not clear why it's used here though.

Edit 2: it has been confirmed (by Chris) in an itaiji dictionary that the kanji with a 「西」 on top and a 「心」 on the bottom is a variant of 「惡」.

I'm guessing it refers to some sort of evil spirits, but I can't find any references to the existence of such a concept in Buddhism. I'm not an expert on the topic though, so I might have missed some stuff. Similarly, the use a coffin is perplexing when cremation is standard. Likely, the coffin was a temporary device used for ceremonial transportation of the body to the cremation location. In any case, that question will probably be resolved in a future post.

I didn't fully understand how to parse 「忽七宝」. By itself, 「七宝」 refers to the seven treasures of Buddhism, namely gold, silver, pearls, agate, crystal, coral, and lapis lazuli. 「忽」 can mean "immediately", which I thought was the most appropriate definition to use here.

Moving on to fig. 8, the reading for 「香湯」 (written as 「こうとう」 in modern Japanese) is something I was able to derive from dictionary entries such as this one. However, I couldn't find an entry for 「香湯」 itself, so I just guessed at the meaning based on the two separate kanji and the context.

We see another instance of 「せ」 vs. 「セ」 (as mentioned previously in the comments on fig. 1) in the verb 「着セ」. The second stroke of 「せ」 is clearly visible in the original manuscript. 「着セ」 is the continuative form of the premodern word 「す」, which has the same meaning as the modern 「着せる」.

Fig. 8 ends with 「入レ奉レリ」, which can be broken down as 「入レ」+「奉レ」+「リ」. The first part is the verb 「ル」 ("to put inside") in its shimo-nidan "ra" form, where the continuative form would be 「入レ」. Next is the honorific verb 「奉ル」 in the realis (perfective) form (已然形). It is in this form because following it is the auxiliary verb 「リ」, which requires the preceding verb to be in that form. 「リ」 itself is in the predicative form, and takes on the perfective (完了) meaning here.