|Fig. 1: 中に此ごろ家移か。|
|Fig. 2: 萬たらはぬ新世帯。|
Inside, at the moment, is it someone is moving in/out? (fig. 1) It is a new household, lacking in various aspects (fig. 2).「萬」 is the traditional form （旧字体） of 「万」, the character for "10,000." An archaic meaning for this was "various."
There's another classical verb conjugation to study here: first, we have 「たらは」, the imperfective form （未然形） of a "ha"-form yodan verb （自ハ四）, 「足らふ」. It is in that form because it is followed by the negative verb 「ず」, which is itself in the attributive form （連体形）, where it changes to 「ぬ」. The attributive form is necessary because it's followed by a noun, 「新世帯」 ("new household").
The husband's age was 18 or 19 (fig. 3). He didn't look like a person of low birth (fig. 4),but like someone who had probably met with misfortune in the past (fig. 5), and was mired in the hardships of poverty (fig. 7).
Fig. 3: 主は年頃十八九。
|Fig. 4: 人品賤しからねども。|
|Fig. 5: 薄命なる人なりけん。|
We can see the classical influence here as well. Tamenaga's reference to "low birth" may have originated from a statement in the Analects of Confucius （論語）, seen in fig. 6.
The sentence is in Classical Chinese, but has annotation marks (kundoku) that allow the characters to be read in an order that makes grammatical sense in (classical) Japanese. This style of writing is known as kanbun, and was used for many official documents in pre-modern Japan.
|Fig. 6: 貧與賤是人之所惡也|
When the kundoku rules are followed, the sentence is rendered as :
貧ト 賤 與ハ 是レ 人 之 惡ム 所 也」
This transcribed form is known as kakikudashibun （書き下し文）.
The translation is:
Poverty and low birth, these are the things that people hate (fig. 6) (Analects of Confucius).
|Fig. 7: 貧苦にせまる|
As he is the protagonist of Umegoyomi, this clarification of Tanjirou's societal status was considered necessary by Tamenaga. Although Tanjirou might be looked down upon for his poverty, he still had his pride.
The 「けん」 seen in fig. 5 is a sound-shifted version of 「けむ」, which is an auxiliary verb that indicates speculation about the past. It is in the predicative form （終止形）, as it is at the end of a sentence. The preceding verb, 「なり」, is the copular auxiliary verb of classical Japanese (analogous to 「だ」 in modern Japanese) in the continuative form, as required by 「けむ」.
The verb 「せまる」, written with kanji as 「迫る」, means 「生活に困る」 ("to face problems in one's daily life") in this context.