|Fig. 1: 此ノ由シ|
御許ニ 告 奉ラムト 為ルニ、仏ノ 在マス所ハ 舎衛国 也、 迦毘羅衛国ヨリ五十 由旬ノ間ナレバ、使ノ行カム程ニ浄飯王ハ 死 給ヌベシ
For this reason, in order to reveal [his imminent death] to the Buddha (fig. 1), [who] lived in the Country of Śrāvastī (fig. 2), [Śuddhodana] was going to send a messenger (fig. 5), but since [Śrāvastī] was 50 yojana from the Country of Kapilavastu (fig. 3), King Śuddhodana would no doubt have died while [the messenger] was en route (fig. 5).
|Fig. 2: 佛ノ在マス|
Also of importance is the phrase 「告奉ラムト為ルニ」.
That would make 「奉ラム」 the humble verb 「奉ル」 in the imperfective form （未然形）, followed by the auxiliary verb 「ム」 in the predicative form （終止形）, which indicates intention （意志）.
Continuing on to fig. 2, note the verb 「在マス」.
According to Wikipedia, the kanji name 「舎衛」 for Śrāvastī is an abbreviation of ateji, such as 「室羅伐悉底」, although I'm not clear on where either of the kanji used in the abbreviation came from (perhaps they are unrelated and used just for their phonetic value as well).
There are also meaning-based translations of Śrāvastī, such as 「聞者」, which is based on the Sanskrit root "śrāvas" ("श्रवस्"), which means "hearing" or "fame". As mentioned in the Google Books link, this is cognate to the Latin "cluo" and the Ancient Greek "kleos" ("κλέος"), the latter being a theme encountered in Greek works such as the Iliad and the Odyssey. The common ancestor of the cognates is the Proto-Indo-European word "*ḱléwos".
Fig. 2 ends with the archaic copula 「也」. Note how the similarities between it and the hiragana 「や」 can be seen in its calligraphed form in the original text. Indeed, 「也」 is the kanji from which 「や」 is derived, and 「や」 is a possible reading of 「也」, one that I have encountered most often in kanbun texts.
|Fig. 3: 迦毗羅衛国|
The case particle 「ヨリ」 is used here to indicate the point of origin （起点）, and is analogous to the modern Japanese 「から」.
「ナレバ」, at the end of fig. 3, is the copular auxiliary verb 「なり」 in its perfective form （已然形）, followed by the conjunctive particle 「ば」, which takes on the function of providing a causal logical connection ("since"). This is analogous to 「ので」 in modern Japanese. Also, note how the kana 「ナレハ」 are written in the original text ― the third kana is written to the left of the first two, just as was seen in the previous post in figs. 6 and 8. Matt suggested in the comments for that post that this pattern might be unique to 「テ」, but it turns out that it actually isn't. Also, a similar occurrence can be observed with 「シ」 in fig. 5 of this post.
We also encounter the yojana ("योजन" in Sanskrit; 「由旬」 in Japanese), a Vedic measure of distance for which the exact metric equivalent is unknown, but is estimated by scholars to be 6 to 15 kilometers. I tested this estimate by measuring the distance between where Śrāvastī and Kapilavastu are believed to be located, based on evidence discovered through archaeological digs. Their respective latitudinal/longitudinal coordinates are:
haversine formula can then be used to approximate the ground distance between two sets of latitude/longitude coordinates. R is the radius of the Earth (6367.5 km).
I also used Daft Logic's Google Maps Distance Calculator to visualize/confirm this calculation:
|Fig. 4: the distance between Kapilavastu (on the right) and Śrāvastī (on the left).|
Note how they are on different sides of the (modern) India-Nepal border.
|Fig. 5: 使ノ行|
In this context, 「使」 is a noun that takes on the meaning of "messenger", or "emissary".
「行カム」 can be broken down as the yodan verb 「行く」 in the imperfective form （未然形） followed by the auxiliary verb 「ム」 in the attributive form （連体形）. In this context, 「ム」 has the function of speculation/conjecture about the future （推量）.
The most confusing part of fig. 5 was the ending ― 「死給ヌベシ」.